students in experiences with phenomena (Category III) and presenting them
with scientific ideas (Category IV) will not lead to effective
learning unless they are given time, opportunities, and guidance
to make sense of the experiences and ideas (Driver, 1983). No
matter how clearly materials may present ideas, students will
make their own meaning out of it (Anderson & Smith, 1984).
Carefully chosen and sequenced questions and tasks are necessary to scaffold
students' attempts to construct the intended meaning of experiences or presentations
of ideas (Arons, 1990; Anderson & Smith, 1987; Anderson & Roth, 1989).
By students making their thinking about experiences and ideas overt to themselves,
the teacher, and other students, it can be examined, questioned, and shaped (Glaser,
1994; Linn & Burbules, 1993; Needham, 1987). This category includes criteria
to determine whether the material provides students with opportunities and
guidance to make meaning out of its activities.