Table of Contents for Blueprints: Solving the Mystery of Evolution

Acknowledgments x
Introduction 1
Part 1. Intimations: Many Questions but No Good Answers
Chapter 1
Six Who Helped Lay the Groundwork 7
Carolus Linnaeus: "I will sort and name many things." 10
George Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon: "I will describe and explain everything." 14
James Hutton: "The world is older than you think." 20
Jean Baptiste Lamarck: "Species change.They do it by striving." 22
Georges Cuvier: "Fossils are real." 26
Thomas Malthus: "Life is a struggle. Only the fittest survive." 30
Part 11. A Theory at Last: Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species
Chapter 2
The Voyage of the Beagle. First Suspicions about Change. Years of Lonely Labor. 37
Chapter 3
A Shock from the Spice Islands. The Shocker: Alfred Russel Wallace. 70
Chapter 4
The Origin Is Published. The Reaction. 84
Part 111. Two Problems That Darwin Could Not Solve
Chapter 5
Gregor Mendel. The Problem of Blending Explained: Traits Endure. 105
Chapter 6
Hugo de Vries. The Source of Variation Found: Mutations Occur. Mendel Is Vindicated. 123
Part IV. Inside the Cell: Chromosomes and Genes
Chapter 7.
The Role of the Chromosome 135
August Weismann: "Your chromosomes determine what you are." 138
Theodor Boveri: "Yes, and you need them all." 140
The Bicycle Factory: Designers and Workers. 143
Chapter 8
The Fly Room 146
T. H. Morgan (early): "Forget genes; they don't exist." 146
T. H. Morgan (later): "Sorry; they do." 151
Alfred Sturtevant: Crossing Over Discovered. 162
Hermann J. Muller: The Source of Mutations Revealed. Darwin in Eclipse. 171
Darwin Rehabilitated: The New Evolutionary Synthesis. 179
Part V. Inside the Chromosome: DNA and RNA
Chapter 9
Friedrich Miescher: What Are Chromosomes Made of? Answer: DNA. 185
Chapter 10
George Beadle and Edward L. Tatum: What Does DNA Do? It Hands Out Instructions and Thus Changes Things. 193
Chapter 11
Oswald Avery: Is That Really True? Yes; DNA Is the Transforming Agent. 205
Chapter 12
James Watson and Francis Crick: How Is DNA Put Together? 215
The First Model a Disaster. 220
The Second Model a Triumph. The Double Helix. 226
Chapter 13
Questions for Crick: What Does the Code Say? How Is It Read? Is RNA Involved? 235
Chapter 14
The Dual Nature of DNA 251
Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl: Autocatalysis--DNA Makes Itself. 251
Arthur Kornberg: Heterocatalysis--a Relationship Between DNA and Proteins Is Established. 255
Marshall Nirenberg and Johann Matthaei: The DNA Code Is Cracked. 258
Chapter 15
The Triplet Code and the Ribosome. Crick Enunciates the Central Dogma. 267
Part Vl. The Origin of Life
Chapter 16
Stanley L. Miller and Manfred Eigen: A Look from the Bottom Up. 281
Chapter 17
Carl R. Woese: A Look from the Top Down. 296
Part Vll. DNA and the Fossil Record
Chapter 18
What Old Bones Have to Say about Human Evolution. What Molecules Have to Say. 325
Part Vlll. Specialization and Extinction
Chapter 19
Is There Danger in Being Too Smart? 371
Bibliography 391
Illustration Credits 395
Index 397