Table of Contents for Seven Ideas that Shook the Universe

Preface viii
Chapter 1
Introduction 1
Revolutions and Science 1
Dominant Themes in Physics 3
Continuing Evolution of Scientific Knowledge--The Seven Ideas 4
Physics Without Mathematics? 8
Science and Other Areas of Human Endeavor--Distinctions and Similarities 10
Chapter 2
Copernican Astronomy 14
Early Scientific Stirrings in the Mediterranean Area 15
Geocentric Theory of the Universe 19
The Heliocentric Theory--Revival by Copernicus 29
New Data and a New Theory 45
New Discoveries and Arguments 39
Kepler's Heliocentric Theory 41
The Course of Scientific Revolutions 48
Chapter 3
Newtonian Mechanics and Causality 50
Aristotelian Physics 50
Galilean Mechanics 57
Logic, Mathematics, and Science 65
Newtonian Mechanics 70
Consequences and Implications 81
Chapter 4
The Energy Concept 84
Interactions and Conservation Laws 84
Heat and Motion 88
Conservation of Energy 100
Chapter 5
Entropy and Probability 106
Heat and Temperature 108
The Natural Flow of Heat 110
Transformation of Heat Energy into Other Forms of Energy 110
Efficiency of Heat Engines 117
The Thermodynamic or Absolute Temperature Scale 123
The Third Law of Thermodynamics 124
Energy Degradation, Unavailability, and Entropy 125
Entropy Increase and Irreversibility 128
Entropy as a Parameter of a System 129
Probability and the Microscopic Interpretation of Entropy 130
Entropy and Order: Maxwell's Demon 134
Cosmological and Philosophical Implications: "Heat Death" of theUniverse 136
Chapter 6
Relativity 139
Galilean-Newtonian Relativity 140
Electromagnetism and Relative Motion 144
Attempts to Detect the Ether 156
Special Theory of Relativity 160
General Theory of Relativity 174
Influence of Relativity Theory on Philosophy, Literature, and Art 183
Chapter 7
Quantum Theory and the End of Causality 184
CavityorBlackbodyRadiation 187
The Photoelectric Effect 194
The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Spectra 199
Quantum Theory, Uncertainty, and Probability 207
The Use of Models in Describing Nature 220
The Impact of Quantum Theory on Philosophy and Literature 222
Chapter 8
Conservation Principles and Symmetries 225
The Nuclear Force and Nuclear Structure 227
Conservation Laws and Invariants 234
Conservation Laws and Symmetries 236
The Quark Model 238
Summary of Present Knowledge 244
References 249
Index 257