REFERENCES

11 COMMON THEMES

    Aikenhead, G.S. (1987). High school graduates' beliefs about science-technology-society III. Characteristics and limitations of scientific knowledge. Science Education, 71, 459-487.

    Brook, A., & Driver, R. (1984). Aspects of secondary students' understanding of energy: Summary report. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    Brook, A., Briggs, H., & Bell, B. (1983). Secondary students' ideas about particles. Leeds, UK: The University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    Brosnan, T. (1990). Categorizing macro and micro explanations of material change. In P.L. Lijnse, P. Licht, W. de Vos, & A.J. Waarlo (Eds.), Relating macroscopic phenomena to microscopic particles (pp. 198-211). Utrecht, Holland: CD- Press.

    Brown, D., & Clement, J. (1989). Overcoming mis-conceptions via analogical reasoning: abstract transfer versus explanatory model construction. Instructional Science, 18, 237-261.

    Donaldson, M. (1978). Children's minds. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Driver, R. (1985). Beyond appearances: The conservation of matter under physical and chemical transformations. In R. Driver, E. Guesne, & A. Tiberghien (Eds.), Children's ideas in science (pp. 145-169). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

    Driver, R., Guesne, E., & Tiberghien, A. (1985). Some features of children's ideas and their implications for teaching. In R. Driver, E. Guesne, & A. Tiberghien (Eds.), Children's ideas in science (pp. 193-201). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.

    Garigliano, L. (1975). SCIS: Children's understanding of the systems concept. School Science and Mathematics, 75, 245-249.

    Gega, P. (1986). Science in elementary education. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

    Grosslight, L., Unger, C., Jay, E., & Smith, C.L. (1991). Understanding models and their use in science: Con-ceptions of middle and high school students and experts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 799-822.

    Hill, D., & Redden, M. (1985). An investigation of the system concept. School Science and Mathematics, 85, 233-239.

    Ingham, A.M., & Gilbert, J.K, (1991). The use of analogue models by students of chemistry at higher education level. International Journal of Science Education, 13, 193-202.

    Karplus, R. & Thier, H. (1969). A new look at elementary school science; science curriculum improvement study. Chicago: Rand McNally.

    Kircher, E. (1985). Analogies for the electric circuit? In R. Duit, W. Jung, and C. von Rhoeneck (Eds.), Aspects of understanding electricity (pp. 299-310). Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel.

    Ryan, A. & Aikenhead, G. (1992). Students' preconceptions about the epistemology of science. Science Education, 76, 559-580.

    Smith, C., Snir, J., & Grosslight, L. (1987). Teaching for conceptual change using a computer modeling approach: The case of weight/density differentiation (Technical Report). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Educational Technology Center.

    Stavy, R. (1990). Children's conceptions of changes in the state of matter: From liquid (or solid) to gas. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 247-266.

    Tierney, C., & Nemirovsky, R. (1991, Fall). Children's spontaneous representations of changing situations. Hands on!, 7-10.

    White, B. (1990). Reconceptualizing science and engineering education. Unpublished manuscript. Cambridge, MA: BBN Laboratories.