Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Chapter 15 THE RESEARCH BASE



Studies on young children's recognition of conflict indicate that from age six on, children are able to recognize that a child's desires may conflict with those of his parents or friends (Berti, 1988; Damon, 1977), but it is not clear whether children at this age can also recognize conflict among adults. Upper elementary-school students may not recognize that making laws (to settle conflicts) is the job of the whole community as well as political leaders (Berti, 1988). Middle-school students may not recognize conflict involving social groups (Berti, 1988; Connell, 1971). Middle-school students do not recognize the role of debate, disagreement, and conflict in the operation of the democratic political system (Hess & Torney, 1968).