Exploring the Use of Project 2061 Tools, 5:
To Design Instruction


Workshop options in this section include classroom lessons designed using Science for All Americans (SFAA) and Benchmarks for Science Literacy (Benchmarks). These lessons represent what instruction might be like after science education reform. They can serve as examples for designing other lessons in accord with Project 2061 reform principles. The lessons can also be used to practice analyzing curriculum materials and instruction (see Exploring the Use of Project 2061 Tools, 3: To Analyze Curriculum Materials, and 4: To Analyze Instruction).

After the lesson is presented, participants analyze how effective its content and pedagogy might be in helping students understand the benchmarks. Participants also design a new lesson using Project 2061 tools and "Steps in Designing Instruction."  This procedure, which involves reflection and careful study of SFAA and Benchmarks, is a flexible approach to lesson design that has been used successfully by science educators at a variety of grade levels.

Each option contains the workshop plan, the lesson plan (with worksheets, transparencies, and instructions), and a list of benchmarks, some central to the lesson and others related to it in interesting—though perhaps less obvious—ways. The first five lessons are related to developing understanding of cells. The last two are about topics central to science literacy but not often taught in American classrooms: feedback control and risk analysis. The lessons were chosen to represent various grade ranges.

To prepare for discussions related to these lessons, workshop leaders may find it useful to read Chapter 13 in Science for All Americans as well as the essays "CELLS Through the Lens of Benchmarks" and "Aerobic Science Education" (Chapter 5: Selected Readings).

An appropriate workshop summary for workshops focusing on lesson design is Option D: Defining Project 2061.