NSES Content Standard Unifying Concepts and Processes:   Evidence, models and explanation  Grades K-12, page 117  Models are tentative schemes or structures that correspond to real objects, events, or classes of events, and that have explanatory power. Models help scientists and engineers understand how things work. Models take many forms, including physical objects, plans, mental constructs, mathematical equations, and computer simulations.

Benchmark 2C The Nature of Mathematics: Mathematical Inquiry
Much of the work of mathematicians involves a modeling cycle, which consists of three steps: (1) using abstractions to represent things or ideas, (2) manipulating the abstractions according to some logical rules, and (3) checking how well the results match the original things or ideas. If the match is not considered good enough, a new round of abstraction and manipulation may begin. The actual thinking need not go through these processes in logical order but may shift from one to another in any order.

Benchmark 8E The Designed World: Information Processing
Computer modeling explores the logical consequences of a set of instructions and a set of data. The instructions and data input of a computer model try to represent the real world so the computer can show what would actually happen. In this way, computers assist people in making decisions by simulating the consequences of different possible decisions.

Benchmark 9B The Mathematical World: Symbolic Relationships
Any mathematical model, graphic or algebraic, is limited in how well it can represent how the world works. The usefulness of a mathematical model for predicting may be limited by uncertainties in measurements, by neglect of some important influences, or by requiring too much computation.

Benchmark 9E The Mathematical World: Reasoning
One way to make sense of something is to think how it is like something more familiar.

Benchmark 9E The Mathematical World: Reasoning
An analogy has some likenesses to but also some differences from the real thing.

Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models
Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or that are too vast to be changed deliberately, or that are potentially dangerous.

Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models