NSES Content Standard Unifying Concepts
and Processes:
Evidence, models and explanation Grades 912, page 117 Evidence consists of observations and data on which to base scientific
explanations. Using evidence to understand interactions allows individuals
to predict changes in natural and designed systems.

Benchmark 9D The Mathematical World:
Uncertainty
Grades 68, page 229
How probability is estimated depends on what is known about the situation.
Estimates can be based on data from similar conditions in the past or on
the assumption that all the possibilities are known.
Benchmark 9D The Mathematical World:
Uncertainty
Grades 912, page 230
Even when there are plentiful data, it may not be obvious what mathematical
model to use to make predictions from them or there may be insufficient
computing power to use some models.
Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models
Grades 912, page 270
The basic idea of mathematical modeling is to find a mathematical relationship
that behaves in the same ways as the objects or processes under investigation.
A mathematical model may give insight about how something really works
or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.
Science for All Americans The Nature
of Science
Chapter 1, page 6
Scientists strive to make sense of observations of phenomena by constructing
explanations for them that use, or are consistent with, currently accepted
scientific principles. Such explanations theories may be either sweeping
or restricted, but they must be logically sound and incorporate a significant
body of scientifically valid observations.
Science for All Americans The Nature
of Science
Chapter 1, page 6
The essence of science is validation by observation. But it is not
enough for scientific theories to fit only the observations that are already
known. Theories should also fit additional observations that were not used
in formulating the theories in the first place; that is, theories should
have predictive power.