NSES Content Standard Unifying Concepts
and Processes:
Systems, order, and organization Grades K12, page 116 Science assumes that the behavior of the universe is not capricious,
that nature is the same everywhere, and that it is understandable and predictable.
Students can develop understanding of regularities in systems, and by extension,
the universe; they can develop understandings of basic laws, theories,
and models that explain the world. Newton's laws of force and motion, Kepler's
laws of planetary motion, conservation laws, Darwin's laws of natural selection,
and chaos theory all exemplify the idea of order and regularity. An assumption
of order establishes the basis for causeeffect relationships and predictability.

Benchmark 10B Historical Perspectives:
Uniting the Heavens and Earth
Grades 912, page243
Isaac Newton created a unified view of force and motion in which motion
everywhere in the universe can be explained by the same few rules. His
mathematical analysis of gravitational force and motion showed that planetary
orbits had to be the very ellipses that Kepler had proposed two generations
earlier.
Benchmark 11A Common Themes: Systems
Grades 912, page 266
Even in some very simple systems, it may not always be possible to
predict accurately the result of changing some part or connection.
Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models
Grades 912, page 270
The basic idea of mathematical modeling is to find a mathematical relationship
that behaves in the same ways as the objects or processes under investigation.
A mathematical model may give insight about how something really works
or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.
Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models
Grades 912, page 270
The usefulness of a model can be tested by comparing its predictions
to actual observations in the real world. But a close match does not necessarily
mean that the model is the only "true" model or the only one that would
work.
Benchmark 11C Common Themes: Constancy
and Change
Grades 912, page 275
Most systems above the molecular level involve so many parts and forces
and are so sensitive to tiny differences in conditions that their precise
behavior is unpredictable, even if all the rules for change are known.
Predictable or not, the precise future of a system is not completely determined
by its present state and circumstances but also depends on the fundamentally
uncertain outcomes of events on the atomic scale.