NSES Content Standard A  Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Grades 9-12, page 175 Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. Student inquiries should culminate in formulating an explanation or model. Models should be physical, conceptual, and mathematical. In the process of answering the questions, the students should engage in discussions and arguments that result in the revision of their explanations. These discussions should be based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and evidence from their investigation.

Benchmark 1A The Nature of Science: The Scientific World View
Scientific knowledge is subject to modification as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way.

Benchmark 1B The Nature of Science: Scientific Inquiry
Hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of the data (both new and previously available).

Benchmark 1B The Nature of Science: Scientific Inquiry
There are different traditions in science about what is investigated and how, but they all have in common certain basic beliefs about the value of evidence, logic, and good arguments. And there is agreement that progress in all fields of science depends on intelligence, hard work, imagination, and even chance.

Benchmark 9E The Mathematical World: Reasoning
To be convincing, an argument needs to have both true statements and valid connections among them. Formal logic is mostly about connections among statements, not about whether they are true. People sometimes use poor logic even if they begin with true statements, and sometimes they use logic that begins with untrue statements.

Benchmark 9E The Mathematical World: Reasoning
Logic requires a clear distinction among reasons: A reason may be sufficient to get a result, but perhaps is not the only way to get there; or, a reason may be necessary to get the result, but it may not be enough by itself; some reasons may be both sufficient and necessary.

Benchmark 9E The Mathematical World: Reasoning
Wherever a general rule comes from, logic can be used in testing how well it works. Proving a generalization to be false (just one exception will do) is easier than proving it to be true (for all possible cases). Logic may be of limited help in finding solutions to problems if one isn't sure that general rules always hold or that particular information is correct; most often, one has to deal with probabilities rather than certainties.

Benchmark 9E The Mathematical World: Reasoning
Once a person believes in a general rule, he or she may be more likely to notice cases that agree with it and to ignore cases that don't. To avoid biased observations, scientific studies sometimes use observers who don't know what the results are "supposed" to be.

Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models
Models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or that are too vast to be changed deliberately, or that are potentially dangerous.

Benchmark 11B Common Themes: Models