NSES Content Standard A  Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Grades 9-12, page 175 Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. A variety of technologies, such as hand tools, measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions, formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and graphs are used for communicating results.

Benchmark 1C The Nature of Science: The Scientific Enterprise
Computers have become invaluable in science because they speed up and extend people's ability to collect, store, compile, and analyze data, prepare research reports, and share data and ideas with investigators all over the world.

Benchmark 3A The Nature of Technology: Technology and Science
Technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection and treatment, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and communication of information.

Benchmark 4A The Physical Setting: The Universe
Mathematical models and computer simulations are used in studying evidence from many sources in order to form a scientific account of the universe.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Use ratios and proportions, including constant rates, in appropriate problems.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Find answers to problems by substituting numerical values in simple algebraic formulas and judge whether the answer is reasonable by reviewing the process and checking against typical values.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Use computer spreadsheet, graphing, and database programs to assist in quantitative analysis.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Compare data for two groups by representing their averages and spreads graphically.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Trace the source of any large disparity between an estimate and the calculated answer.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Consider the possible effects of measurement errors on calculations.

Benchmark 12C Habits of Mind: Manipulation and Observation