NSES Content Standard A  Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Grades 5-8, page 148 Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Mathematics is essential to asking and answering questions about the natural world. Mathematics can be used to ask questions, to gather, organize and present data, and to structure convincing explanations.

Benchmark 2A The Nature of Mathematics: Patterns and Relationships
Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them. Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves.

Benchmark 2B The Nature of Mathematics: Mathematics, Science, and Technology
Mathematics is helpful in almost every kind of human endeavor--from laying bricks to prescribing medicine or drawing a face. In particular, mathematics has contributed to progress in science and technology for thousands of years and still continues to do so.

Benchmark 2C The Nature of Mathematics: Mathematical Inquiry
Numbers and shapes--and operations on them--help to describe and predict things about the world around us.

Benchmark 2C The Nature of Mathematics: Mathematical Inquiry
When mathematicians use logical rules to work with representations of things, the results may or may not be valid for the things themselves. Using mathematics to solve a problem requires choosing what mathematics to use; probably making some simplifying assumptions, estimates, or approximations; doing computations; and then checking to see whether the answer makes sense. If an answer does not seem to make enough sense for its intended purpose, then any of these steps might have been inappropriate.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Find what percentage one number is of another and figure any percentage of any number.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Use, interpret, and compare numbers in several equivalent forms such integers, fractions, decimals, and percents.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Calculate the circumferences and areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles, and the volumes of rectangular solids.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Find the mean and median of a set of data.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Estimate distances and travel times from maps and the actual size of objects from scale drawings.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Insert instructions into computer spreadsheet cells to program arithmetic calculations.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Determine what unit (such as seconds, square inches, or dollars per tankful) an answer should be expressed in from the units of the inputs to the calculation, and be able to convert compound units (such as yen per dollar into dollar per yen, or miles per hour into feet per second).

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Decide what degree of precision is adequate and round off the result of calculator operations to enough significant figures to reasonably reflect those of the inputs.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Express numbers like 100, 1,000, and 1,000,000 as powers of 10.

Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation
Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations, on the basis of history or the number of possible outcomes.

Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication Skills
Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events.

Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication Skills
Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.

Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication Skills