NSES Content Standard A
Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Grades 58, page 148 Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Mathematics is
essential to asking and answering questions about the natural world. Mathematics
can be used to ask questions, to gather, organize and present data, and
to structure convincing explanations.

Benchmark 2B The Nature of Mathematics:
Mathematics, Science, and Technology
Grades 68, page 32
Mathematics is helpful in almost every kind of human endeavorfrom
laying bricks to prescribing medicine or drawing a face. In particular,
mathematics has contributed to progress in science and technology for thousands
of years and still continues to do so.
Benchmark 2C The Nature of Mathematics:
Mathematical Inquiry
Grades 35, page 36
Numbers and shapesand operations on themhelp to describe and predict
things about the world around us.
Benchmark 2C The Nature of Mathematics:
Mathematical Inquiry
Grades 68, page 37
When mathematicians use logical rules to work with representations
of things, the results may or may not be valid for the things themselves.
Using mathematics to solve a problem requires choosing what mathematics
to use; probably making some simplifying assumptions, estimates, or approximations;
doing computations; and then checking to see whether the answer makes sense.
If an answer does not seem to make enough sense for its intended purpose,
then any of these steps might have been inappropriate.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Find what percentage one number is of another and figure any percentage
of any number.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Use, interpret, and compare numbers in several equivalent forms such
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Calculate the circumferences and areas of rectangles, triangles, and
circles, and the volumes of rectangular solids.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Find the mean and median of a set of data.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Estimate distances and travel times from maps and the actual size of
objects from scale drawings.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Insert instructions into computer spreadsheet cells to program arithmetic
calculations.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Determine what unit (such as seconds, square inches, or dollars per
tankful) an answer should be expressed in from the units of the inputs
to the calculation, and be able to convert compound units (such as yen
per dollar into dollar per yen, or miles per hour into feet per second).
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Decide what degree of precision is adequate and round off the result
of calculator operations to enough significant figures to reasonably reflect
those of the inputs.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Express numbers like 100, 1,000, and 1,000,000 as powers of 10.
Benchmark 12B Habits of Mind: Computation
and Estimation
Grades 68, page 291
Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations, on the basis
of history or the number of possible outcomes.
Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication
Skills
Grades 35, page 296
Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events.
Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication
Skills
Grades 68, page 297
Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships
they reveal.
Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication
Skills
Grades 68, page 297
Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words
what they show.
Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication
Skills
Grades 68, page 297
Understand writing that incorporates circle charts, bar and line graphs,
twoway data tables, diagrams, and symbols.
Benchmark 12D Habits of Mind: Communication
Skills
Grades 68, page 297
Find and describe locations on maps with rectangular and polar coordinates.
See also Chapter 9 The Mathematical World.