Benchmark 9E
The Mathematical World: Reasoning
Grades 9-12, page 234

Wherever a general rule comes from, logic can be used in testing how well it works. Proving a generalization to be false (just one exception will do) is easier than proving it to be true (for all possible cases). Logic may be of limited help in finding solutions to problems if one isn't sure that general rules always hold or that particular information is correct; most often, one has to deal with probabilities rather than certainties.

 NSES Content Standard A  Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Grades 9-12, page 175 Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. Student inquiries should culminate in formulating an explanation or model. Models should be physical, conceptual, and mathematical. In the process of answering the questions, the students should engage in discussions and arguments that result in the revision of their explanations. These discussions should be based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and evidence from their investigation. NSES Content Standard A  Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Grades 9-12, page 175 Communicate and defend a scientific argument. Students in school science programs should develop the abilities associated with accurate and effective communication. These include writing and following procedures, expressing concepts, reviewing information, summarizing data, using language appropriately, developing diagrams and charts, explaining statistical analysis, speaking clearly and logically, constructing a reasoned argument, and responding appropriately to critical comments.