Benchmark 3B
The Nature of Technology: Design and Systems
Grades 9-12, page 52

To reduce the chance of system failure, performance testing is often conducted using small-scale models, computer simulations, analogous systems, or just the parts of the system thought to be least reliable.

NSES Content Standard E 
Science and Technology: Abilities of technological design 
Grades 9-12, page 192 
Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions. Students should demonstrate thoughtful planning for a piece of technology or technique. Students should be introduced to the roles of models and simulations in these processes.