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CHAPTER 12: HABITS OF MIND

**A. VALUES AND ATTITUDES**
**K-2**
Raise questions about the world around them and be
willing to seek...
**3-5**

Keep records of their investigations and observations
and not change...
Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons
suggested by others.
**6-8**

Know why it is important in science to keep honest,
clear, and accurate...
Know that hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn
out not to be...
Know that often different explanations can be given
for the same...
**9-12**

Know why curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism
are so highly...
View science and technology thoughtfully, being neither
categorically...

**B. COMPUTATION AND ESTIMATION**
**K-2**
Use whole numbers and simple, everyday fractions
in ordering,...
Readily give the sums and differences of single-digit
numbers in...
Give rough estimates of numerical answers to problems
before doing...
Explain to other students how they go about solving
numerical...
Make quantitative estimates of familiar lengths,
weights, and time...
**3-5**

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers
mentally, on...
Use fractions and decimals, translating when necessary
between...
Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities
such as...
State the purpose of each step in a calculation.
Read and follow step-by-step instructions in a calculator
or computer...
**6-8**

Find what percentage one number is of another and
figure any...
Use, interpret, and compare numbers in several equivalent
forms such...
Calculate the circumferences and areas of rectangles,
triangles, and...
Find the mean and median of a set of data.
Estimate distances and travel times from maps and
the actual size of...
Insert instructions into computer spreadsheet cells
to program...
Determine what unit (such as seconds, square inches,
or dollars per...
Decide what degree of precision is adequate and round
off the result of...
Express numbers like 100, 1,000, and 1,000,000 as
powers of 10.
Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations,
on the basis...

**9-12**

Use ratios and proportions, including constant rates,
in appropriate...
Find answers to problems by substituting numerical
values in simple...
Make up and write out simple algorithms for solving
problems that...
Use computer spreadsheet, graphing, and database
programs to assist...
Compare data for two groups by representing their
averages and...
Express and compare very small and very large numbers
using...
Trace the source of any large disparity between an
estimate and the...
Recall immediately the relations among 10, 100, 1000,
1 million, and 1...
Consider the possible effects of measurement errors
on calculations.

**C. MANIPULATION AND OBSERVATION**
**K-2**
Use hammers, screwdrivers, clamps, rulers, scissors,
and hand lenses,...
Assemble, describe, take apart and reassemble constructions
using...
Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic,
metal, or...
Measure the length in whole units of objects having
straight edges.
**3-5**

Choose appropriate common materials for making simple
mechanical...
Measure and mix dry and liquid materials (in the
kitchen, garage, or...
Keep a notebook that describes observations made,
carefully...
Use calculators to determine area and volume from
linear dimensions,...
Make safe electrical connections with various plugs,
sockets, and...
**6-8**

Use calculators to compare amounts proportionally.
Use computers to store and retrieve information in
topical...
Read analog and digital meters on instruments used
to make direct...
Use cameras and tape recorders for capturing information.
Inspect, disassemble, and reassemble simple mechanical
devices and...
**9- 12**

Learn quickly the proper use of new instruments by
following...
Use computers for producing tables and graphs and
for making...
Troubleshoot common mechanical and electrical systems,
checking for...
Use power tools safely to shape, smooth, and join
wood, plastic, and...

**D. COMMUNICATION SKILLS**
**K-2**
Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape,
texture, size,...
Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some
features of the thing...
**3-5**

Write instructions that others can follow in carrying
out a procedure.
Make sketches to aid in explaining procedures or
ideas.
Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects
and events.
**6-8**

Organize information in simple tables and graphs
and identify...
Read simple tables and graphs produced by others
and describe in...
Locate information in reference books, back issues
of newspapers and...
Understand writing that incorporates circle charts,
bar and line...
Find and describe locations on maps with rectangular
and polar...
**9-12**

Make and interpret scale drawings.
Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting
investigations,...
Choose appropriate summary statistics to describe
group differences,...
Describe spatial relationships in geometric terms
such as...
Use and correctly interpret relational terms such
as if . . . then . . . ,...
Participate in group discussions on scientific topics
by restating or...
Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments
and claims in oral...

**E. CRITICAL-RESPONSE SKILLS**
**K-2**
Ask "How do you know?" in appropriate situations
and attempt...
**3-5**

Buttress their statements with facts found in books,
articles, and...
Recognize when comparisons might not be fair because
some...
Seek better reasons for believing something than
"Everybody knows...
**6-8**

Question claims based on vague attributions (such
as "Leading doctors...
Compare consumer products and consider reasonable
personal trade-...
Be skeptical of arguments based on very small samples
of data, biased...
Be aware that there may be more than one good way
to interpret a...
Notice and criticize the reasoning in arguments in
which (1) fact and...
**9-12**

Notice and criticize arguments based on the faulty,
incomplete, or...
Check graphs to see that they do not misrepresent
results by using...
Wonder how likely it is that some event of interest
might have...
Insist that the critical assumptions behind any line
of reasoning be...
Be aware, when considering claims, that when people
try to prove a...
Suggest alternative ways of explaining data and criticize
arguments in...