CHAPTER 12: HABITS OF MIND

A. VALUES AND ATTITUDES K-2
  • Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek...
  • 3-5

  • Keep records of their investigations and observations and not change...
  • Offer reasons for their findings and consider reasons suggested by others.
  • 6-8

  • Know why it is important in science to keep honest, clear, and accurate...
  • Know that hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be...
  • Know that often different explanations can be given for the same...
  • 9-12

  • Know why curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism are so highly...
  • View science and technology thoughtfully, being neither categorically...

  •  
    B. COMPUTATION AND ESTIMATION K-2
  • Use whole numbers and simple, everyday fractions in ordering,...
  • Readily give the sums and differences of single-digit numbers in...
  • Give rough estimates of numerical answers to problems before doing...
  • Explain to other students how they go about solving numerical...
  • Make quantitative estimates of familiar lengths, weights, and time...
  • 3-5

  • Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers mentally, on...
  • Use fractions and decimals, translating when necessary between...
  • Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities such as...
  • State the purpose of each step in a calculation.
  • Read and follow step-by-step instructions in a calculator or computer...
  • 6-8

  • Find what percentage one number is of another and figure any...
  • Use, interpret, and compare numbers in several equivalent forms such...
  • Calculate the circumferences and areas of rectangles, triangles, and...
  • Find the mean and median of a set of data.
  • Estimate distances and travel times from maps and the actual size of...
  • Insert instructions into computer spreadsheet cells to program...
  • Determine what unit (such as seconds, square inches, or dollars per...
  • Decide what degree of precision is adequate and round off the result of...
  • Express numbers like 100, 1,000, and 1,000,000 as powers of 10.
  • Estimate probabilities of outcomes in familiar situations, on the basis...

  •  

    9-12

  • Use ratios and proportions, including constant rates, in appropriate...
  • Find answers to problems by substituting numerical values in simple...
  • Make up and write out simple algorithms for solving problems that...
  • Use computer spreadsheet, graphing, and database programs to assist...
  • Compare data for two groups by representing their averages and...
  • Express and compare very small and very large numbers using...
  • Trace the source of any large disparity between an estimate and the...
  • Recall immediately the relations among 10, 100, 1000, 1 million, and 1...
  • Consider the possible effects of measurement errors on calculations.

  •  
    C. MANIPULATION AND OBSERVATION K-2
  • Use hammers, screwdrivers, clamps, rulers, scissors, and hand lenses,...
  • Assemble, describe, take apart and reassemble constructions using...
  • Make something out of paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or...
  • Measure the length in whole units of objects having straight edges.
  • 3-5

  • Choose appropriate common materials for making simple mechanical...
  • Measure and mix dry and liquid materials (in the kitchen, garage, or...
  • Keep a notebook that describes observations made, carefully...
  • Use calculators to determine area and volume from linear dimensions,...
  • Make safe electrical connections with various plugs, sockets, and...
  • 6-8

  • Use calculators to compare amounts proportionally.
  • Use computers to store and retrieve information in topical...
  • Read analog and digital meters on instruments used to make direct...
  • Use cameras and tape recorders for capturing information.
  • Inspect, disassemble, and reassemble simple mechanical devices and...
  • 9- 12

  • Learn quickly the proper use of new instruments by following...
  • Use computers for producing tables and graphs and for making...
  • Troubleshoot common mechanical and electrical systems, checking for...
  • Use power tools safely to shape, smooth, and join wood, plastic, and...

  •  
    D. COMMUNICATION SKILLS K-2
  • Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size,...
  • Draw pictures that correctly portray at least some features of the thing...
  • 3-5

  • Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a procedure.
  • Make sketches to aid in explaining procedures or ideas.
  • Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events.
  • 6-8

  • Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify...
  • Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in...
  • Locate information in reference books, back issues of newspapers and...
  • Understand writing that incorporates circle charts, bar and line...
  • Find and describe locations on maps with rectangular and polar...
  • 9-12

  • Make and interpret scale drawings.
  • Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations,...
  • Choose appropriate summary statistics to describe group differences,...
  • Describe spatial relationships in geometric terms such as...
  • Use and correctly interpret relational terms such as if . . . then . . . ,...
  • Participate in group discussions on scientific topics by restating or...
  • Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral...

  •  
    E. CRITICAL-RESPONSE SKILLS K-2
  • Ask "How do you know?" in appropriate situations and attempt...
  • 3-5

  • Buttress their statements with facts found in books, articles, and...
  • Recognize when comparisons might not be fair because some...
  • Seek better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows...
  • 6-8

  • Question claims based on vague attributions (such as "Leading doctors...
  • Compare consumer products and consider reasonable personal trade-...
  • Be skeptical of arguments based on very small samples of data, biased...
  • Be aware that there may be more than one good way to interpret a...
  • Notice and criticize the reasoning in arguments in which (1) fact and...
  • 9-12

  • Notice and criticize arguments based on the faulty, incomplete, or...
  • Check graphs to see that they do not misrepresent results by using...
  • Wonder how likely it is that some event of interest might have...
  • Insist that the critical assumptions behind any line of reasoning be...
  • Be aware, when considering claims, that when people try to prove a...
  • Suggest alternative ways of explaining data and criticize arguments in...
  •