Benchmark 1B
The Nature of Science: Scientific Inquiry
Grades 9-12, page 13

Sometimes, scientists can control conditions in order to obtain evidence. When that is not possible for practical or ethical reasons, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to be able to discern patterns.

NSES Content Standard A 
Science as Inquiry: Understanding about scientific inquiry 
Grades 5-8, page 148 
Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations. Some investigations involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve seeking more information, some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; and some involve making models. 

NSES Content Standard A 
Science as Inquiry: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry 
Grades 9-12, page 175 
Design and conduct scientific investigations. Designing and conducting a scientific investigation requires introduction to the major concepts in the area being investigated, proper equipment, safety precautions, assistance with methodological problems, recommendations for use of technologies, clarification of ideas that guide the inquiry, and scientific knowledge obtained from sources other than the actual investigation. The investigation may also require student clarification of the question, method, controls, and variables; student organization and display of data; student revision of methods and explanations; and a public presentation of the results with a critical response from peers. Regardless of the scientific investigation performed, students must use evidence, apply logic, and construct an argument for their proposed explanations.