### Standard 10: Statistics

In grades 5-8, the mathematics curriculum should include exploration of statistics in real world situations so that students can:
• Systematically collect, organize, and describe data
• Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
Spreading data out on a number line helps to see what the extremes are, where they pile up, and where the gaps are. A summary of data includes where the middle is and how much spread is around it.

Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
A small part of something may be special in some way and not give and accurate picture of the whole. How much a portion of something can help to estimate what the whole is like depends on how the portion is chosen. There is a danger of choosing only the data that show what is expected by the person doing the choosing.

Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Find the mean and median of a set of data.

Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
The mean, median, and mode tell different things about the middle of a data set.

Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
Comparison of data from two groups should involve comparing both their middles and the spreads around them.

Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
The larger a well-chosen sample is, the more accurately it is likely to represent the whole. But there are many ways of choosing a sample that can make it unrepresentative of the whole.

• Construct, read, and interpret tables, charts, and graphs
• Benchmarks 12D (Habits of Mind: Communication Skills)
Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify the relationships they reveal.

Benchmarks 12D (Habits of Mind: Communication Skills)
Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words what they show.

• Make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on data analysis
• Benchmarks 9C page 224 (The Mathematical World: Shapes)
The graphic display of numbers may help to show patterns such as trends, varying rates of change, gaps, or clusters. Such patterns sometimes can be used to make predictions about the phenomena being graphed.

• Evaluate arguments that are based on data analysis
• Benchmarks 12E (Habits of Mind: Critical-Response Skills)
Seek better reasons for believing something than "Everybody knows that..." or "I just know" and discount such reasons when given by others.

• Develop an appreciation for statistical methods as powerful means for decision-making
• Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)