- Understand and appreciate the need for numbers beyond the whole numbers
- Extend their understanding of whole number operations to fractions, decimals, integers, and rational numbers
- Understand how the basic arithmetic operations are related to one another
- Develop and apply number theory concepts (e.g., primes, factors, and multiples) in real-world and mathematical problem situations

Grades K-2, page 290

Use whole numbers and simple, everyday fractions in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing things and experiences.

*Benchmarks* 8E (The Designed World: Information Processing)

Grades 6-8, page 202

Most computers use digital codes containing only two symbols, 0 and
1, to perform all operations. Continuous signals (analog) must be transformed
into digital codes before they can be processed by a computer.

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

A number line can be extended on the other side of zero to represent
negative numbers. Negative numbers allow subtraction of a bigger number
from a smaller number to make sense, and are often used when something
can be measured on either side of some reference point (time, ground level,
temperature, budget).

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

There have been systems for writing numbers other than the Arabic system
of place values based on tens. The very old Roman numerals are now used
only for dates, clock faces, or ordering chapters in a book. Numbers based
on 60 are still used for describing time and angles.

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

Numbers can be represented by using sequences of only two symbols (such
as 1 and 0, on and off); computers work this way.

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

A number line can be extended on the other side of zero to represent
negative numbers. Negative numbers allow subtraction of a bigger number
from a smaller number to make sense, and are often used when something
can be measured on either side of some reference point (time, ground level,
temperature, budget).

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

Numbers can be written in different forms, depending on how they are
being used. How fractions or decimals based on measured quantities should
be written depends on how precise the measurements are and how precise
an answer is needed.

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

The operations + and – are inverses of each other one undoes the other;
likewise ´ and ¸
.

*Benchmarks* 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)

Grades 6-8, page 213

The expression *a/b* can mean different things: a parts of size
1*/b* each, *a* divided by *b*, or *a* compared to
*b*.