### Standard 11: Statistics and Probability

In grades K-4, the curriculum should include experiences with data analysis and probability so that students can:
• Collect, organize, and describe data
Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
The larger a well-chosen sample is, the more accurately it is likely to represent the whole. But there are many ways of choosing a sample that can make it unrepresentative of the whole.
• Construct, read, and interpret displays of data
Benchmarks 12D (Habits of Mind: Communication Skills)
Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects and events.
Benchmarks 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)
Simple graphs can help to tell about observations.
Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
Spreading data out on a number line helps to see what the extremes are, where they pile up, and where the gaps are. A summary of data includes where the middle is and how much spread is around it.

Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
A small part of something may be special in some way and not give and accurate picture of the whole. How much a portion of something can help to estimate what the whole is like depends on how the portion is chosen. There is a danger of choosing only the data that show what is expected by the person doing the choosing.

Benchmarks 9C (The Mathematical World: Shapes)
Graphical display of numbers may make it possible to spot patterns that are not otherwise obvious, such as comparative size or trends.

• Formulate and solve problems that involve collecting and analyzing data
• Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
Often a person can find out about a group of things by studying just a few of them.

Benchmarks 9D page 227 (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)
Some predictions can be based on what is known about the past, assuming that conditions are pretty much the same now.

• Explore concepts of chance
Benchmarks 9D (The Mathematical World: Uncertainty)