### Standard 8: Whole Number Computation

In grades K-4, the curriculum should develop whole number computation so that students can:
• Model, explain, and develop reasonable proficiency with basic facts and algorithms
Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Grades K-2, page 290
Readily give the sums and differences of single-digit numbers in familiar contexts where the operation makes sense and they can judge the reasonableness of the answer.

Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Grades K-2, page 290
Explain to other students how they go about solving numerical problems.

Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Grades 3-5, page 290
State the purpose of each step in a calculation.

• Use a variety of mental computation and estimation techniques
• Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Grades 3-5, page 290
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers mentally, on paper, and with a calculator.

• Use calculators in appropriate computational situations

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Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Grades 3-5, page 290
Read and follow step-by-step instructions in a calculator or computer manual when learning new procedures.

Benchmarks 12C (Habits of Mind: Manipulation and Observation)
Grades 3-5, page 293
Use calculators to determine area and volume from linear dimensions, aggregate amounts of area, volume, weight, time, and cost, and find the difference between two quantities of anything.

• Select and use computation techniques appropriate to specific problems and determine whether the results are reasonable
• Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
Grades K-2, page 290
Judge whether measurements and computations of quantities such as length, area, volume, weight, or time are reasonable in a familiar context by comparing them to typical values.