### Standard 4: Mathematical Connections

In grades K-4, the study of mathematics should include opportunities to make connections so that students can:
• Link conceptual and procedural knowledge
•
Benchmarks 12B (Habits of Mind: Computation and Estimation)
State the purpose of each step in a calculation.

Benchmarks 12D (Habits of Mind: Communication Skills)
Make sketches to aid in explaining procedures or ideas.

Benchmarks 12D (Habits of Mind: Communication Skills)
Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a procedure.

Benchmarks 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)
A number line can be extended on the other side of zero to represent negative numbers. Negative numbers allow subtraction of a bigger number from a smaller number to make sense, and are often used when something can be measured on either side of some reference point (time, ground level, temperature, budget).

• Relate various representations of concepts or procedures to one another
•
Benchmarks 9A (The Mathematical World: Numbers)
Numbers can be written in different forms depending on how they are being used. How fractions or decimals based on measured quantities should be written depends on how precise the measurements are and how precise an answer is needed.

• Recognize relationships among different topics in mathematics
• Benchmarks 12E (Habits of Mind: Critical-Response Skills)
One way to describe something is to say how it is like something else.

Benchmarks 2A (The Nature of Mathematics: Patterns and Relationships)
Mathematical ideas can be represented concretely, graphically, and symbolically.

Benchmarks 11C (Common Themes: Constancy and Change)
Some features of things may stay the same even when other features change. Some patterns look the same when they are shifted over, or turned, or reflected or seen form different directions.

• Use mathematics in other curriculum areas
• Benchmarks 11B (Common Themes: Models)
Different models can be used to represent the same thing. What kind of model to use and how complex it should be depends on its purpose. The usefulness of a model may be limited if it is too simple or if it is needlessly complicated. Choosing a useful model is one of the instances in which intuition and creativity come into play in science, mathematics, and engineering.

• Use mathematics in their daily lives
• Benchmarks 11D (Common Themes: Scale)