Benchmark 9D: The Mathematical World : Uncertainty (grades 6-8, page 229)

• How probability is estimated depends on what is known about the situation. Estimates can be based on data from similar conditions in the past or on the assumption that all the possibilities are known. (1 of 6)

Standard 11-3, page 109, Grades 5-8

Appreciate the power of using a probability model by comparing experimental results with mathematical expectations

Standard 11-1 page 171, Grades 9-12

Use experimental or theoretical probability, as appropriate, to represent and solve problems involving uncertainty

• Probabilities are ratios and can be expressed as fractions, percentages, or odds. (2 of 6)

Standard 11-1, page 109, Grades 5-8

Model situations by devising and carrying out experiments or simulations to determine probabilities

• The mean, median, and mode tell different things about the middle of a data set. (3 of 6)

Standard 10-1, page 105, Grades 5-8

Systematically collect, organize, and describe data

• Comparison of data from two groups should involve comparing both their middles and the spreads around them. (4 of 6)

Standard 10-1, page 105, Grades 5-8

Systematically collect, organize, and describe data

• The larger a well-chosen sample is, the more accurately it is likely to represent the whole. But there are many ways of choosing a sample that can make it unrepresentative of the whole. (5 of 6)

Standard 11-1 page 54, Grades K-4

Collect, organize, and describe data

Standard 10-1, page 105, Grades 5-8

Systematically collect, organize, and describe data

• Events can be described in terms of being more or less likely, impossible, or certain. (6 of 6)

Standard 11-2 page 109, Grades 5-8

Model situations by constructing a sample space to determine probabilities