- The Role of Research
- The Nature of the Research Literature
- Research Findings By Chapter and Section
- References

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All

**A**

- Shayer, M.,
**Adey, P.**(1981). Towards a science of science teaching. London: Heinemann. - Garfield, J.,
**Ahlgren, A.**(1988). Difficulties in learning probability and statistics: Implications for research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 19, 44-63. - Heller, P.,
**Ahlgren, A.**, Post, T., Behr, M., Lesh, R. (1989). Proportional reasoning: The effect of two context variables, rate type, and problem setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 26, 205-220. **Aikenhead, G.S.**(1987). High school graduates' beliefs about science-technology-society III. Characteristics and limitations of scientific knowledge. Science Education. 71, 459-487.- Ryan, A.,
**Aikenhead, G.**(1992). Students' preconceptions about the epistemology of science. Science Education. 76, 559-580. **Allen, R.D.**, Statkiewitz, W.R., Donovan, M. (1983). Student perceptions of evidence and interpretations. In J. Novak (Ed.),. Proceedings of the international seminar: Misconceptions in science and mathematics. (pp. 79-83). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.- Kuhn, D.,
**Amsel, E.**, O'Loughlin, M. (1988). The development of scientific thinking skills. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. **Anderson, C.**, Sheldon, T., Dubay, J. (1990). The effects of instruction on college nonmajors' conceptions of respiration and photosynthesis. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 27, 761-776.**Anderson, C.**, Smith, E. (1983). Children's conceptions of light and color: Understanding the concept of unseen rays. East Lansing: Michigan State University, ERIC No. ED 270 318.- Bishop, B.,
**Anderson, C.**(1990). Student conceptions of natural selection and its role in evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 27, 415-427. - Lee, O., Eichinger, D.C.,
**Anderson, C.W.**, Berkheimer, G.D., Blakeslee, T.S. (1993). Changing middle school students' conceptions of matter and molecules. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 30, 249-270. - Roth, K.,
**Anderson, C.**(1987). The power plant: Teacher's guide to photosynthesis. Occasional Paper no. 112. Institute for Research on Teaching. East Lansing: Michigan State University, ERIC No. ED 288 699. - Smith, E.,
**Anderson, C.**(1986). Alternative conceptions of matter cycling in ecosystems. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. San Francisco, CA. **Andersson, B.**(1990). Pupils' conceptions of matter and its transformations (age 12-16). In P. Lijnse, P. Licht, W. de Vos, & A.J. Waarlo (Eds.),. Relating macroscopic phenomena to microscopic particles. (pp. 12-35). Utrecht: CD-þ Press.**Arnaudin, M.W.**, Mintzes, J.J. (1985). Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross age study. Science Education,. 69, 721-733.**Arnaudin, M.W.**, Mintzes, J.J. (1986). The cardiovascular system: Children's conceptions and misconceptions. Science and Children,. 23(5), 48-51.- Mintzes, J., Trowbridge, J.,
**Arnaudin, M.**, Wandersee, J. (1991). Children's biology: Studies on conceptual development in the life sciences. In S. Glynn, R. Yeany, & B. Britton (Eds.),. The psychology of learning science. (pp. 179-202). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. - Simpson, M.,
**Arnold, B.**(1985). The inappropriate use of subsumers in biology learning. European Journal of Science Education. 4, 173-182. **Atwood, V. (Ed.)**(1986). Elementary school social studies: Research as a guide to practice. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies.- Brumby, M. N., Garrard, J.,
**Auman, J.**(1985). Students' perceptions of the concept of health. European Journal of Science Education. 7, 307-323.

**B**

**Baird, J.**, Fensham, P., Gunstone, R., White, R. (1989). A study of the importance of reflection for improving teaching and learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Paper, National Association for Research in Science Teaching. San Francisco, ERIC No. ED 307 151.**Baird, J.R.**, Mitchell, J. (Eds.) (1986). Improving the quality of teaching and learning: An Australian case study. Melbourne, Australia: Monash University Press.- Tomasini, G.,
**Balandi, P.**(1987). Teaching strategies and children's science: An experiment on teaching "hot and cold." In J. Novak (Ed.),. Proceedings of the second international seminar "misconceptions and educational strategies in science and mathematics". (Vol. II, pp. 158-171). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. **Bar, V.**(1989). Children's views about the water cycle. Science Education,. 73, 481-500.- Clements, D.,
**Battista, M.**(1989). Learning of geometric concepts in a Logo environment. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 450 467. - Clements, D.,
**Battista, M.**(1990). The effects of Logo on children's conceptualizations of angle and polygons. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 21, 356-371. - Clements, D.,
**Battista, M.**(1992). Geometry and spacial reasoning. In D. Grouws (Ed.),. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 420-464). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. **Baxter, J.**(1989). Children's understanding of familiar astronomical events. International Journal of Science Education,. 11, 502-513.- Saxe, G.,
**Becker, J.**, Sadeghpour, M. (1989). Developmental differences in children's understanding of number word conventions. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 468-488. **Behr, M.J.**(1987). Ratio and proportion: A synthesis of eight conference papers. In U. Bergson, N. Hescovits, & C. Kieran (Eds.),. Psychology and mathematics education. (Vol. II). Proceedings of the eleventh international conference, Montreal, Canada.**Behr, M.**, Lesh, R., Post, T., Silver, E. (1983). Rational number concepts. In R. Lesh & M. Lindau (Eds.),. Acquisition of mathematical concepts and processes. (pp. 91-126). New York: Academic Press.**Behr, M.**, Wachsmuth, I., Post, T., Lesh, R. (1984). Order and equivalence of rational numbers: A clinical teaching experiment. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,. 15, 323-341.- Heller, P., Ahlgren, A., Post, T.,
**Behr, M.**, Lesh, R. (1989). Proportional reasoning: The effect of two context variables, rate type, and problem setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 26, 205-220. - Hiebert, J.,
**Behr, M. (Eds.)**(1988). Number concepts and operations in the middle grades. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. **Bell, A.**, Fischbein, E., Greer, B. (1984). Choice of operation in verbal arithmetic problems: The effects of number size, problem, structure, and context. Educational Studies in Mathematics,. 15, 129-147.**Bell, A.**, Swan, M., Taylor, G. (1981). Choice of operations in verbal problems with decimal numbers. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 12, 399-420.**Bell, B.**(1981). When is an animal, not an animal?. Journal of Biological Education. 15, 213-218.**Bell, B.**,**Brook, A.**(1984). Aspects of secondary students understanding of plant nutrition. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.**Bell, B.**, Freyberg, P. (1985). Language in the science classroom. In R. Osborne & P. Freyberg (Eds.),. Learning in Science. (pp. 29-40). Auckland, NZ: Heinemann.**Brook, A.**,**Briggs, H.**,**Bell, B.**(1983). Secondary students' ideas about particles. Leeds, UK: The University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.**Benander, L.**, Clement, J. (1985). Catalogue of error patterns observed in courses in basic mathematics. Unpublished manuscript. ERIC Reproduction Service. No. ED 287 672.- Lee, O., Eichinger, D.C., Anderson, C.W.,
**Berkheimer, G.D.**,**Blakeslee, T.S.**(1993). Changing middle school students' conceptions of matter and molecules. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 30, 249-270. **Bernstein, A.C.**, Cowan, P.A. (1975). Children's concepts of how people get babies. Child Development. 46, 77-91.**Berti, A. E.**(1988). The development of political understanding in children between 6-15 years old. Human Relations. 41, 437-446.**Berti, A.E.**(1992). Acquisition of the profit concept by third-grade children. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 17, 293-299.**Berti, A.E.**,**Bombi, A.S.**(1988). The child's construction of economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.**Berti, A.E.**, Grivet, A. (1990). The development of economic reasoning in children from 8 to 13 years old: Price mechanism. Contributi di Psicologia. 3(III), 37-47.- Schug, M.,
**Birkey, C.**(1985). The development of children's economic reasoning. Theory and Research in Social Education. XIII(1), 31-42. **Bishop, B.**, Anderson, C. (1990). Student conceptions of natural selection and its role in evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 27, 415-427.**Black, P.**(1990). Can pupils design their own experiments? In. Proceedings of the international conference on physics education through experiments. (pp. 281-299). Tianjin, China: ICPE.**Black, P.**, Solomon, J. (1983). Life world and science world: Pupils' ideas about energy. In G. Marx (Ed.),. Entropy in the school: Proceedings of the 6th Danube seminar on physics education. (pp. 43-55). Budapest: Roland Eotvos Physical Society.**Bliss, J.**(1978). Ideas of chance and probability in children and adolescents. Physics Education. 13, 408-413.**Blum, L.H.**(1977). Health information via mass media: Study of the individual's concepts of the body and its parts. Psychological Reports. 40, 991-999.**Boylan, C.**, Hill, D., Wallace, A., Wheeler, A. (1992). Beyond stereotypes. Science Education,. 76, 465-476.- Dykstra, D.,
**Boyle, C.**, Monarch, I. (1992). Studying conceptual change in learning physics. Science Education. 76, 615-652. - Vosniadou, S.,
**Brewer, W.**(1992). Mental models of the earth: A study of conceptual change in childhood. Cognitive Psychology. 24, 535-585. - Fuson, K., Richards, J.,
**Briars, D.**(1982). The acquisition and elaboration of the number word sequence. In C. Brainerd (Ed.),. Progress in cognitive development research Vol. 1: Children's logical and mathematical cognition. (pp. 33-92). New York: Springer Verlag. **Brook, A.**, Driver, R. (1984). Aspects of secondary students' understanding of energy: Summary report. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.**Brook, A.**, Driver, R. (1986). The construction of meaning and conceptual change in the classroom: Case studies on energy. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.**Brook, A.**, Wells, P. (1988). Conserving the circus: An alternative approach to teaching and learning about energy. Physics Education. 23, 80-85.**Brosnan, T.**(1990). Categorizing macro and micro explanations of material change. In P.L. Lijnse, P. Licht, W. de Vos, & A.J. Waarlo (Eds.),. Relating macroscopic phenomena to microscopic particles. (pp. 198-211). Utrecht, Holland: CD-þ Press.**Brown, C.**, Carpenter, T., Kouba, V., Lindquist, M., Silver, E., Swafford, J. (1988). Secondary school results from the fourth NAEP mathematics assessment: Algebra, geometry, mathematical methods, and attitudes. Mathematics Teacher,. 337-347, 397.- Kouba, V.,
**Brown, C.**, Carpenter, T., Lindquist, M., Silver, E., Swafford, J. (1988). Results of the fourth NAEP assessment of mathematics: Numbers, operations, and word problems. Arithmetic Teacher. 35(8), 14-19. **Brown, D.**, Clement, J. (1989). Overcoming mis-conceptions via analogical reasoning: abstract transfer versus explanatory model construction. Instructional Science. 18, 237-261.**Brown, D.**, Clement, J. (1992). Classroom teaching experiments in mechanics. In R. Duit, F. Goldberg, & H. Niedderer (Eds.),. Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies. (pp. 380-397). Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel.**Brown, J. Van Lehn**, K. (1982). Towards a generative theory of "bugs." In T.P. Carpenter, J. Moser, & T. Romberg (Eds.) Addition and subtraction: A cognitive perspective (pp. 117-135). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum . Journal of Biological Education. 13,119-122.**Brumby, M.**(1982). Students' perceptions of the concept of life. Science Education. 66, 613-622.**Brumby, M. N.**, Garrard, J., Auman, J. (1985). Students' perceptions of the concept of health. European Journal of Science Education. 7, 307-323.**Burger, W.**, Shaughnessy, J. (1986). Characterizing the van Hiele levels of development in geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 17, 31-48.

**C**

**Carey, S.**(1985). Conceptual change in childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.**Carey, S.**(1991). Knowledge acquisition: Enrichment or conceptual change? In S. Carey & R. Gelman (Eds.),. The epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and cognition. (pp. 257-291). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.**Carey, S.**, Evans, R., Honda, M., Jay, E., Unger, C. (1989). An experiment is when you try it and see if it works: A study of grade 7 students' understanding of the construction of scientific knowledge. International Journal of Science Education. 11, 514-529.- Smith, C.,
**Carey, S.**, Wiser, M. (1985). On differen-tiation: A case study of development of the concepts of size, weight, and density. Cognition. 21, 177-237. - Brown, C.,
**Carpenter, T.**, Kouba, V., Lindquist, M., Silver, E., Swafford, J. (1988). Secondary school results from the fourth NAEP mathematics assessment: Algebra, geometry, mathematical methods, and attitudes. Mathematics Teacher,. 337-347, 397. **Carpenter, T.**,**Corbitt, M.**, Kepner, H., Lindquist, M., Reys, R. (1981). Decimals: Results and implications from the second NAEP mathematics assessment. Arithmetic Teacher. 28(8), 34-37.**Carpenter, T.**, Lindquist, M., Matthews, W., Silver, E. (1983). Results of the third NAEP mathematics assessment: Secondary school. Mathematics Teacher. 76, 652-659.**Carpenter, T.**, Moser, J. (1983). The acquisition of addition and subtraction concepts. In R. Lesh & M. Landau (Eds.),. Acquisition of mathematics: Concepts and processes. (pp. 7-44). New York: Academic Press.- Kouba, V., Brown, C.,
**Carpenter, T.**, Lindquist, M., Silver, E., Swafford, J. (1988). Results of the fourth NAEP assessment of mathematics: Numbers, operations, and word problems. Arithmetic Teacher. 35(8), 14-19. - Romberg, T.,
**Carpenter, T.**(1986). Research on teaching and learning mathematics: Two disciplines of scientific inquiry. In M. Wittrock (Ed.),. Handbook of research on teaching. (pp. 850-873). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. **Carr, M.**, Kirkwood, V. (1988). Teaching and learning about energy in New Zealand secondary school junior science classrooms. Physics Education. 23, 86-91.- Ruggiero, S.,
**Cartelli, A.**, Dupre, F., Vicentini-Missoni, M. (1985). Weight, gravity and air pressure: Mental representations by Italian middle-school students. European Journal of Science Education. 7, 181-194. **Case, R.**, Sowder, J. (1990). The development of computational estimation: A neo-Piagetian analysis. Cognition and Instruction. 7, 79-104.- Dossey, J., Mullis, I., Lindquist, M.M.,
**Chambers, D.**(1988). The mathematics report card: Trends and achievement based on the 1986 national assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. **Champagne, A.**, Gunstone, R., Klopfer, L. (1985). Effecting changes in cognitive structures among physics students. In L. West & A. Pines (Eds.),. Cognitive structure and conceptual change. (pp. 61-90). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.- Benander, L.,
**Clement, J.**(1985). Catalogue of error patterns observed in courses in basic mathematics. Unpublished manuscript. ERIC Reproduction Service. No. ED 287 672. - Brown, D.,
**Clement, J.**(1989). Overcoming mis-conceptions via analogical reasoning: abstract transfer versus explanatory model construction. Instructional Science. 18, 237-261. - Brown, D.,
**Clement, J.**(1992). Classroom teaching experiments in mechanics. In R. Duit, F. Goldberg, & H. Niedderer (Eds.),. Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies. (pp. 380-397). Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel. **Clement, J.**(1982). Algebra word problem solutions: Thought processes underlying a common misconception. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 13, 16-30.**Clement, J.**(1987). Overcoming students' misconceptions in physics: The role of anchoring intuitions and analogical validity. In J. Novak (Ed.). Proceedings of the second international seminar misconceptions and educational strategies in science and mathematics. (Vol. III, pp. 84-96). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.**Clement, J.**(1989). The concept of variation and misconceptions in Cartesian graphing. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics. 11(1-2), 77-87.- Linn, M.,
**Clement, C.**, Pulos, S. (1983). Is it formal if it's not physics? The influence of content on formal reasoning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 20, 755-776. **Clements, D.**, Battista, M. (1989). Learning of geometric concepts in a Logo environment. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 450 467.**Clements, D.**, Battista, M. (1990). The effects of Logo on children's conceptualizations of angle and polygons. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 21, 356-371.**Clements, D.**, Battista, M. (1992). Geometry and spacial reasoning. In D. Grouws (Ed.),. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 420-464). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.**Clough, E.E.**, Wood-Robinson, C. (1985). How secondary students interpret instances of biological adaptation. Journal of Biological Education. 19, 125-130.**Clough, E.E.**, Wood-Robinson, C. (1985). Children's understanding of inheritance. Journal of Biological Education. 19, 304-310.- Roseberry, A., Warren, B.,
**Conant, F.**(1992). Appropriating scientific discourse: Findings from language minority classrooms. (Working paper 1-92). Cambridge, MA: TERC. **Connell, R.**(1971). The child's construction of politics. Calton, Australia: Melbourne University Press.**Contento, I.**(1981). Children's thinking about food and eating:. A Piagetian-based study. Journal of Nutrition Education. 13(1), 86-90.**Cooley, W.**, Klopfer, L. (1961). Test on understanding science.*Form W*. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.- Klopfer, L.,
**Cooley, W.**(1963). Effectiveness of the history of science cases for high schools in the development of student understanding of science and scientists. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 1, 35-47. - Bernstein, A.C.,
**Cowan, P.A.**(1975). Children's concepts of how people get babies. Child Development. 46, 77-91. - Good, R., Trowbridge, J., Demastes, S., Wandersee, J., Hafner, M.,
**Cummins, C. (Eds.)**(1993). Proceedings of the 1992 evolution education research conference. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University.

**D**

**Damon, W.**(1977). The social world of the child. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.- Rowell, J.,
**Dawson, C.**(1984). Controlling variables: Testing a programme for teaching a general solution strategy. Research in Science and Technological Education. 2(1), 37-46. - Lijnse, P., Licht, P., de Vos, W., Waarlo A. (Eds.) (1990). Relating macroscopic phenomena to microscopic particles. Utrecht, Holland: CD-þ Press.
**Deadman, J.**, Kelly, P. (1978). What do secondary school boys understand about evolution and heredity before they are taught the topics?. Journal of Biological Education. 12, 7-15.- Good, R., Trowbridge, J.,
**Demastes, S.**, Wandersee, J., Hafner, M., Cummins, C. (Eds.) (1993). Proceedings of the 1992 evolution education research conference. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University. - Hembree, R.,
**Dessart, D.**(1986). Effects of hand held calculators in precollege mathematics education: A meta-analysis. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 17, 83-89. **Dickinson, A.K.**, Lee, P.J., Rogers, P.J. (Eds.) (1984). Learning history. (pp. 39-84). London: Heinemann Educational Books.**Donaldson, M.**(1978). Children's minds. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.**Donnelly, J.F.**(1992). Technology in the school curriculum: A critical bibliography. Studies in Science Education. 20, 123-156.- Allen, R.D., Statkiewitz, W.R.,
**Donovan, M.**(1983). Student perceptions of evidence and interpretations. In J. Novak (Ed.),. Proceedings of the international seminar: Misconceptions in science and mathematics. (pp. 79-83). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. **Dossey, J.**, Mullis, I., Lindquist, M.M., Chambers, D. (1988). The mathematics report card: Trends and achievement based on the 1986 national assessment. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.**Downey, M.**, Levstik,L. (1988). Teaching and learning history: The research base. Social Education. 336-342.**Downey, M.**, Levstik, L. (1991). Teaching and learning history. In J. Shaver (Ed.),. Handbook of research on social studies teaching and learning. (pp. 400-410). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.**Dreyfus, A.**, Jungwirth, E. (1988). The cell concept of 10th graders: Curricular expectations and reality. International Journal of Science Education. 10, 221-229.**Dreyfus, A.**, Jungwirth, E. (1989). The pupil and the living cell: A taxonomy of dysfunctional ideas about an abstract idea. Journal of Biological Education. 23, 49-55.- Jungwirth, E.,
**Dreyfus, A.**(1990). Identification and acceptance of a posteriori causal assertions invalidated by faulty enquiry methodology: An international study of curricular expectations and reality. In D. Herget (Ed.),. More history and philosophy of science in science teaching. (pp. 202-211). Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University. - Jungwirth, E.,
**Dreyfus, A.**(1992). After this, therefore because of this: One way of jumping to conclusions. Journal of Biological Education. 26, 139-142. - Brook, A.,
**Driver, R.**(1984). Aspects of secondary students' understanding of energy: Summary report. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education. - Brook, A.,
**Driver, R.**(1986). The construction of meaning and conceptual change in the classroom: Case studies on energy. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education. **Driver, R.**(1985). Beyond appearances: The conservation of matter under physical and chemical transformations. In R. Driver, E. Guesne, & A. Tiberghien (Eds.),. Children's ideas in science. (pp. 145-169). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.**Driver, R.**, Guesne, E., Tiberghien, A. (1985). Some features of children's ideas and their implications for teaching. In R. Driver, E. Guesne, & A. Tiberghien (Eds.),. Children's ideas in science. (pp. 193-201). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.**Driver, R.**, Millar, R. (1985). Energy matters. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.- Leach, J.,
**Driver, R.**, Scott, P., Wood-Robinson, C. (1992). Progression in understanding of ecological concepts by pupils aged 5 to 16. Leeds, UK: The University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education. - Ramadas, J.,
**Driver, R.**(1989). Aspects of secondary students' ideas about light. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education. - Anderson, C., Sheldon, T.,
**Dubay, J.**(1990). The effects of instruction on college nonmajors' conceptions of respiration and photosynthesis. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 27, 761-776. **Duit, R.**, Goldberg, F., Niedderer, H. (Eds.) (1992). Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies. Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel.- Kesidou, S.,
**Duit, R.**(1993). Students' conceptions of the second law of thermodynamics: An interpretive study. Journal of Research on Science Teaching. 30, 85-106. - Pfundt, H.,
**Duit, R.**(1991). Bibliography. Students' alternative frameworks and science education. (3rd Ed.) Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel. - Ruggiero, S., Cartelli, A.,
**Dupre, F.**, Vicentini-Missoni, M. (1985). Weight, gravity and air pressure: Mental representations by Italian middle-school students. European Journal of Science Education. 7, 181-194. **Duschl, R.**, Smith, M., Kesidou, S., Gitomer, D., Schauble, L. (1992). Assessing student explanations for criteria to format conceptual change learning environments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA.- Solomon, J.,
**Duveen, J.**, Scot, L., McCarthy, S. (1992). Teaching about the nature of science through history: Action research in the classroom. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 29, 409-421. **Dykstra, D.**, Boyle, C., Monarch, I. (1992). Studying conceptual change in learning physics. Science Education. 76, 615-652.

**E**

**Edwards, C. P.**(1986). Promoting social and moral development in young children. New York: Teachers College Press.**Egan, K.**(1982). K. (1982, March). Teaching history to young children. Phi Delta Kappan. 439-441.- Lee, O.,
**Eichinger, D.C.**, Anderson, C.W., Berkheimer, G.D., Blakeslee, T.S. (1993). Changing middle school students' conceptions of matter and molecules. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 30, 249-270. - Stavy, R.,
**Eisen, Y.**, Yaakobi, D. (1987). How students aged 13-15 understand photosynthesis. International Journal of Science Education. 9, 105-115. - Jung, W., Wiesner, H.,
**Engelhard, P.**(1981). Vorstellungen von Schuelern ueber Begriffe der Newtonschen Mechanik. Bad Salzdetfurth: Didaktischer Dienst Franzbecker. **Ericksen, D.**(1991). Students ability to recognize patterns. School Science and Mathematics. .**Erickson, G.**(1985). Heat and temperature: An overview of pupils' ideas. In R. Driver, E. Guesne, & A. Tiberghien (Eds.),. Children's ideas in science. (pp. 55-66). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.- Kargbo, D., Hobbs, E.,
**Erickson, G.**(1980). Children's beliefs about inherited characteristics. Journal of Biological Education. 14, 137-146. - Vergnaud, G.,
**Errecalde, P.**(1980). Some steps in the understanding and the use of scales and axis by 10-13 year old students. In R. Karplus (Ed.),. Proceedings of the fourth international conference for the psychology of mathematics education. (pp. 285-291).(ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED 250 186). - Carey, S.,
**Evans, R.**, Honda, M., Jay, E., Unger, C. (1989). An experiment is when you try it and see if it works: A study of grade 7 students' understanding of the construction of scientific knowledge. International Journal of Science Education. 11, 514-529.

**F**

**Falk, R.**,**Falk, R.**, Levin, I. (1980). A potential for learning probability in young children. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 11, 181-204.- Baird, J.,
**Fensham, P.**, Gunstone, R., White, R. (1989). A study of the importance of reflection for improving teaching and learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Paper, National Association for Research in Science Teaching. San Francisco, ERIC No. ED 307 151. - Bell, A.,
**Fischbein, E.**, Greer, B. (1984). Choice of operation in verbal arithmetic problems: The effects of number size, problem, structure, and context. Educational Studies in Mathematics,. 15, 129-147. **Fischbein, E.**, Gazit, A. (1984). Does the teaching of probability improve probabilistic intuitions?. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 15, 1-24.**Fleming, R.**(1986). Adolescent reasoning in socio-scientific issues. Part I: Social cognition. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 23, 677-687.**Fleming, R.**(1986). Adolescent reasoning in socio-scientific issues. Part II: Nonsocial cognition. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 23, 688-698.**Fleming, R.**(1987). High school graduates' beliefs about science-technology-society II. The interaction among science, technology, society. Science Education. 71, 163-186.**Fort, D.**, Varney, H. (1989). How students see scientists: Mostly male, mostly white, and mostly benevolent. Science and Children,. 26(8), 8-13.**Foster, T.**(1992). Technology education research: Looking to the future. The Technology Teacher. 52(1), 33-34.**Foster, T.**(1992). Topics and methods of recent graduate student research in industrial education and related fields. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education,. 30, 59-72.- Bell, B.,
**Freyberg, P.**(1985). Language in the science classroom. In R. Osborne & P. Freyberg (Eds.),. Learning in Science. (pp. 29-40). Auckland, NZ: Heinemann. **Freyberg, P.**(1985). Implications across the curriculum. In R. Osborne & P. Freyberg (Eds.),. Learning in science. (pp. 125-135). Auckland, NZ: Heinemann.- Osborne, R.,
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**G**

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**X**

**No results to display.**

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