- The Role of Research
- The Nature of the Research Literature
- Research Findings By Chapter and Section
- References

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All

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**Saxe, G.**, Becker, J.,**Sadeghpour, M.**(1989). Developmental differences in children's understanding of number word conventions. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 468-488.**Sadler, P.**(1987). Misconceptions in astronomy. In J. Novak (Ed.),. Proceedings of the second international seminar misconceptions and educational strategies in science and mathematics. (Vol. III, pp. 422-425). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.**Scharmann, L.**, Harris, W. (1992). Teaching evolution: Understanding and applying the nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 29, 375-388.- Duschl, R.,
**Smith, M.**, Kesidou, S., Gitomer, D.,**Schauble, L.**(1992). Assessing student explanations for criteria to format conceptual change learning environments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA. **Schauble, L.**(1990). Belief revision in children: The role of prior knowledge and strategies for generating evidence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 49, 31-57.**Schauble, L.**, Klopfer, L.E., Raghavan, K. (1991). Students' transition from an engineering model to a science model of experimentation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 28, 859-882.**Schoenfeld, A.**(1985). Mathematical problem solving. New York: Academic Press.**Schoenfeld, A.**(1989a). Explorations of students' mathematical beliefs and behavior. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 338-355.**Schoenfeld, A.**(1989b). Problem solving in context(s). In R. Charles & E. Silver (Eds.),. The teaching and assessing of mathematical problem solving. (pp. 82-92). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.**Schoenfeld, A.**(1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense making in mathematics. In D. Grouws (Ed.),. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 334-370). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.**Schug, M.**, Birkey, C. (1985). The development of children's economic reasoning. Theory and Research in Social Education. XIII(1), 31-42.**Schug, M.**, Lephardt, N. (1992). Development in children's thinking about international trade. The Social Studies. 207-211.**Solomon, J.**, Duveen, J.,**Scot, L.**, McCarthy, S. (1992). Teaching about the nature of science through history: Action research in the classroom. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 29, 409-421.- Leach, J., Driver, R.,
**Scott, P.**, Wood-Robinson, C. (1992). Progression in understanding of ecological concepts by pupils aged 5 to 16. Leeds, UK: The University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education. **Senk, S.**(1989). Van Hiele levels and achievement in writing geometry proofs. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 309-321.**Sere, M.**(1985). The gaseous state. In R. Driver, E. Guesne, & A. Tiberghien (Eds.),. Children's ideas in science. (pp. 105-123). Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.- Burger, W.,
**Shaughnessy, J.**(1986). Characterizing the van Hiele levels of development in geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 17, 31-48. **Shaughnessy, J. M.**(1992). Research in probability and statistics: reflections and directions. In D. Grouws (Ed.),. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 465-494). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.**Shaver, J. (Ed.)**(1991). Handbook of research on social studies teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.**Shayer, M.**, Adey, P. (1981). Towards a science of science teaching. London: Heinemann.- Anderson, C.,
**Sheldon, T.**, Dubay, J. (1990). The effects of instruction on college nonmajors' conceptions of respiration and photosynthesis. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 27, 761-776. **Shelmit, D.**(1984). Beauty and the philosopher: Empathy in history and classroom. In A.K. Dickinson, P.J. Lee, & P.J. Rogers (Eds.),. Learning history. (pp. 39-84). London: Heinemann Educational Books.**Shortland, M.**, Warwick, A. (Eds.) (1989). Teaching the history of science. Oxford: Basil, Blackwell.- Behr, M., Lesh, R., Post, T.,
**Silver, E.**(1983). Rational number concepts. In R. Lesh & M. Lindau (Eds.),. Acquisition of mathematical concepts and processes. (pp. 91-126). New York: Academic Press. - Brown, C., Carpenter, T., Kouba, V., Lindquist, M.,
**Silver, E.**,**Swafford, J.**(1988). Secondary school results from the fourth NAEP mathematics assessment: Algebra, geometry, mathematical methods, and attitudes. Mathematics Teacher,. 337-347, 397. - Carpenter, T., Lindquist, M., Matthews, W.,
**Silver, E.**(1983). Results of the third NAEP mathematics assessment: Secondary school. Mathematics Teacher. 76, 652-659. - Kouba, V., Brown, C., Carpenter, T., Lindquist, M.,
**Silver, E.**,**Swafford, J.**(1988). Results of the fourth NAEP assessment of mathematics: Numbers, operations, and word problems. Arithmetic Teacher. 35(8), 14-19. **Simpson, M.**, Arnold, B. (1985). The inappropriate use of subsumers in biology learning. European Journal of Science Education. 4, 173-182.- Kahneman, D.,
**Slovic, P.**, Tversky, A. (1982). Judgment under certainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - Anderson, C.,
**Smith, E.**(1983). Children's conceptions of light and color: Understanding the concept of unseen rays. East Lansing: Michigan State University, ERIC No. ED 270 318. **Smith, E.**, Anderson, C. (1986). Alternative conceptions of matter cycling in ecosystems. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. San Francisco, CA.- Grosslight, L., Unger, C., Jay, E.,
**Smith, C.L.**(1991). Understanding models and their use in science: Con-ceptions of middle and high school students and experts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 28, 799-822. **Smith, C.**, Carey, S., Wiser, M. (1985). On differen-tiation: A case study of development of the concepts of size, weight, and density. Cognition. 21, 177-237.**Smith, C.**,**Snir, J.**, Grosslight, L. (1987). Teaching for conceptual change using a computer modeling approach: The case of weight/density differentiation. (Technical Report). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Educational Technology Center. ERIC No. ED 291 598.**Sneider, C.**, Pulos, S. (1983). Children's cosmographies: Understanding the earth's shape and gravity. Science Education. 67, 205-221.- Black, P.,
**Solomon, J.**(1983). Life world and science world: Pupils' ideas about energy. In G. Marx (Ed.),. Entropy in the school: Proceedings of the 6th Danube seminar on physics education. (pp. 43-55). Budapest: Roland Eotvos Physical Society. **Solomon, J.**(1983). Learning about energy: How pupils think in two domains. European Journal of Science Education. 5, 49-59.**Solomon, J.**(1985). Teaching the conservation of energy. Physics Education,. 20, 165-170.**Solomon, J.**(1991). Teaching about the nature of science in the British National Curriculum. Science Education. 75, 95-103.**Solomon, J.**(1992). Images of physics: How students are influenced by social aspects of science. In R. Duit, F. Goldberg, & H. Niedderer (Eds.),. Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies. (pp. 141-154). Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education at the University of Kiel.- Linn, M.,
**Songer, N.B.**(1991). Teaching thermo-dynamics to middle school students: What are appropriate cognitive demands?. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 28, 885-918. - Case, R.,
**Sowder, J.**(1990). The development of computational estimation: A neo-Piagetian analysis. Cognition and Instruction. 7, 79-104. - Markovits, Z.,
**Sowder, J.**(1991). Students' understanding of the relationship between fractions and decimals. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics. 13(1), 3-11. **Sowder, J.**(1988). Mental computation and number comparison: Their roles in the development of number sense and computational estimation. In J. Hiebert & M. Behr (Eds.),. Number concepts and operations in the middle grades. (pp. 182-197). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.**Sowder, J.**(1992). Making sense of numbers in school mathematics. In G. Leinhardt, R. Putnam, & R. Hattrup (Eds.),. Analysis of arithmetic for mathematics teaching. (pp.1-51). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.**Sowder, J.**(1992). Estimation and number sense. In D. Grouws (Ed.),. Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning. (pp. 371-389). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.**Sowder, J.**, Wheeler, M. (1989). The development of concepts and strategies used in computational estimation. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 20, 130-146.- Kimbell, R.,
**Stables, K.**, Wheeler, T., Wosniak, A., Kelly, V. (1991). The assessment of performance in design and technology. London, UK: School Examinations and Assessment Council. - Karplus, R., Pulos, S.,
**Stage, E.**(1983). Proportional reasoning of early adolescents. In R. Lesh & M. Landau (Eds.). Acquisition of mathematics concepts and processes. New York: Academic Press. - Allen, R.D.,
**Statkiewitz, W.R.**, Donovan, M. (1983). Student perceptions of evidence and interpretations. In J. Novak (Ed.),. Proceedings of the international seminar: Misconceptions in science and mathematics. (pp. 79-83). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. **Stavy, R.**(1990). Children's conceptions of changes in the state of matter: From liquid (or solid) to gas. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 27, 247-266.**Stavy, R.**(1991). Children's ideas about matter. School Science and Mathematics. 91, 240-244.**Stavy, R.**, Eisen, Y., Yaakobi, D. (1987). How students aged 13-15 understand photosynthesis. International Journal of Science Education. 9, 105-115.- Leinhardt, G., Zaslavsky, O.,
**Stein, M.**(1990). Functions, graphs, and graphing: Tasks, learning, and teaching. Review of Educational Research. 60, 1-64. - Minstrell, J.,
**Stimpson, V.**, Hunt, E. (1992). Instructional design and tools to assist teachers in addressing students' understanding and reasoning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco. **Stone, L.C.**(1986). International and multicultural education. In V. Atwood (Ed.),. Elementary Social Studies: Research as a guide to practice. (pp. 34-54). Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies.**Sutherland, R.**(1987). A study of the use and understanding of algebra related concepts within a Logo environment. In J. Bergeron, N. Herscovics, & C. Kieran (Eds.),. Proceedings of the tenth international conference for the psychology of mathematics education. (Vol. I, pp. 241-247). Montreal: University of Montreal.**Suydam, M.**(1985). The shape of instruction in geometry: Some highlights from research. Mathematics Teacher. 78, 481-486.- Bell, A.,
**Swan, M.**, Taylor, G. (1981). Choice of operations in verbal problems with decimal numbers. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 12, 399-420. - Linn, M.,
**Swiney, J.**(1981). Individual differences in formal thought: Role of cognitions and aptitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology. 73, 274-286.

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