- The Role of Research
- The Nature of the Research Literature
- Research Findings By Chapter and Section
- References

**Kieran, C.**(1981). Concepts associated with the equality symbol. Educational Studies in Mathematics. 12, 317-326.**Kieran, C.**(1984). A comparison between novice and more-expert algebra students on tasks dealing with the equivalence of equations. In J. Moser (Ed.). Proceedings of the sixth annual meeting of PME-NA. (pp. 83-91). Madison: University of Wisconsin.**Kieran, C.**(1988). Two different approaches among algebra learners. In A. F. Coxford (Ed.),. The ideas of algebra, K-12. (1988 Yearbook, pp. 91-96). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.**Kieran, C.**(1989). The early learning of algebra: A structural perspective. In S. Wagner & C. Kieran (Eds.),. Research issues in the learning and teaching of algebra. (pp. 33-56). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.**Kieran, C.**(1992). The learning and teaching of school algebra. In D. Grouws (Ed.),. Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. (pp. 390-419). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.- Wagner, S., Kieran, C. (Eds.) (1989). Research issues in the learning and teaching of algebra. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Copyright © 1993,2009 by American Association for the Advancement of Science