material include activities that provide firsthand
experiences with phenomena when practical or provide
students with a vicarious sense of the phenomena when
of meeting the criterion
firsthand experience is efficient (when
compared to other firsthand experiences) and, if
several firsthand experiences target the same idea,
the set of firsthand experiences is efficient.
(The efficiency of an experience equals the cost
of the experience [in time and money] in relation
to its value.)
experiences that are not firsthand (e.g.,
text, pictures, video) provide students with a vicarious sense
of the phenomena. (Please note that if the material
provides only firsthand experiences, this indicator
is not applicable.)
set of firsthand and vicarious experiences is sufficient.
material meets all indicators or just indicators
1 and 3 or indicators 2 and 3, if firsthand experiences
are not possible.
material includes some efficient firsthand experiences
and, if several firsthand experiences target the
same idea, the set of firsthand experiences is sufficient.
When firsthand experiences are not practical, the
material provides students with a vicarious sense
of the phenomena for some of the experiences that
are not firsthand.
material includes at best only one efficient firsthand
experience or provides students with a vicarious
sense of one phenomenon that is not firsthand.
should proceed as follows:
the key ideas for which there is a content match.
the treatment of each idea that results from step
a. The overall score for this criterion will be
the average of the scores for each idea.